A small alcoholic beverage producer in Brooklyn stockpiled bottles, paying more upfront to be sure it could produce enough to meet demand. An all-terrain-vehicle maker outside Cleveland raised prices as the cost of batteries and international shipping soared, and its waiting list grew anyway. Mondelez International in Chicago bet that international consumers would buy Ritz and Cadbury products even if the checkout price rose 20% in two years. General Motors and Ford navigated chip shortages that slowed manufacturing against insatiable demand. And airlines held firm on pricing seats for summer travel.